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How Fuel Delivery System (FDS) in an Automobile Engine Works

04.27.2014 · Posted in Automotive, cars

The FDS is a major sub-system in the engine of an automobile. The function of the FDS is to store and deliver the appropriate amount of fuel to power the engine.

The FDS comprises various components. Optimal functioning of every component is essential for the overall performance of the engine. In this article, we will discuss the major components of FDS and how they make the engine work.

Major components
The fuel tank: This is usually located away from the engine of the car. In rear engined vehicles, it is located in the front and at the back in front engined vehicles. It has an inlet line through which gasoline enters the tank, and an outlet line through which it is pumped to the engine. It has a gauge apparatus that measures the amount of gasoline left in the tank. There is also a mesh filter in the tank. The filter prevents solid impurities from entering the tank and the pump.

Fuel lines: These are pipes that carry gasoline from one component to the other in the FDS.

Injector: It is a valve that receives pressurized fuel from the pump and atomizes it into a fine mist to facilitate easy combustion.

Filter: Apart from the mesh filter in the tank, there is another filter located in the tank or between the lines and the metering components – depending on the model/model of the vehicle. This filter removes dust particles and other contaminants in the fuel before it reaches the injectors.

Pressure regulator: This regulator varies the pressure based on the amount of vacuum. It regulates the pressure so that the flow of fuel that reaches the injectors is consistent.

Fuel injection system (FIS): In mechanical FIS, the carburetor supplies the right mixture of air and fuel to the engine under varying conditions to facilitate combustion.

On the other hand, the electronic FIS uses sensors to determine the appropriate mixture. Moreover, these systems operate at a relatively high pressure and deliver the mixture (in the form of fine mist) to the combustion chamber at a high pressure to facilitate better combustion.

With the advancement in technology, the electronic FIS has become popular because of higher efficiency and lower emissions and has replaced the carburetors.

Fuel pump: It draws gasoline from the tank and supplies it to the injector. Broadly there are two types of pumps:

Mechanical: These are used in carburetor engines that use mechanical FIS. They generate low pressure.

Electric: These are used in vehicles with modern FIS. They use electricity and generate high pressure.

Working of FDS
The fuel is drawn from the tank, and is pushed through the lines. Then, it is filtered by the filters and is carried to the injectors, which atomize it into a fine mist and spray into the combustion chamber.

Depending upon the FIS in the vehicle, the pressure regulator regulates the pressure so that pressure is maintained consistently throughout. And, the remaining gasoline is sent back to the tank.

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